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graphene Graphite 'ej

carbon unique versatile 'ej element baS capable pIm architectures legh nanoscale Dumerbe'. rIn Qav 20 DIS, vay'mo' chen vay' chu' members qorDu' carbon nanostructure 'ej paw latlh. carbon nanostructures ranging vo' c60 graphene juS vegh carbon nanotubes overview qaS puS DuHIvDI' review. yab potlh law' DuHIvDI' 'oH je potlh definitions carbon nanoscience buS novel wa'-'ej cha'-dimensional patlh carbon (sp2 hybridized), 'ej DaH nobvam graphene 'ej nanoribbons. account SaH 'Itlh synthesis 'ej characterization 'ej chu' perspectives va, chemical, mechanical 'ej magnetic bang waw' Duy' tailoring ja'chuq latest, engineering yISeH. 'e' potlh applications ghaj 'op tlham ja'chuq neH review pa' yoS related electronics, spintronics, composites, Hergh 'ej law' latlhpu' foreseen 'oH.

tlha' definitions quv, vIchID graphene rur tlham:

graphite: 3d pat

graphite laH define maH Hoch stack patlh consisting sp2 hybridized carbon atoms (Fig. 1 g); chenmoH qut infinite three-dimensional rar Hoch carbon atom latlh wej tajvaj 120◦ je bond 'ab 1.42 chenmoH å. depending on patlh stacking, qut laH hexagonal (ababab...) pagh rhombohedral (abcabc...). SeH hexagonal je, rhombohedal tlham p63 ghap mmc (194) r-3 m (166) logh ghom, 'ej respectively. qaStaHvIS cha' tlhIH 3d qut, interact patlh weakly vegh van der waals 'eychoH. laH found burgh, 'ej laH je 'un synthesized pong thermolytic mIw graphite qut. such as production highly orient pyrolytic graphite (hopg).

graphene: 2d pat

graphene qut infinite two-dimensional patlh consisting sp2 hybridized carbon atoms, baS SeH wa' vagh 2d bravais lattices lattice hexagonal (triangular) pong. noteworthy 'e' pong piling woDDI' patlh graphene, qaStaHvIS ra' mIw, 3d graphite laH Dumerbe' wa'. initially qel graphene je vIleghDI' puS theoretical DanoHmeH Del qut graphite, 'ej formation carbon nanotubes (tetlh graphene jan'e') HaD 'ej vuQ va bang predict. chaq 2d atomic (wa' atom jeD) qut carbon Hoch unique va tlham je linear dispersion close to fermi patlh fingerprint. Huj carriers neH graphene net poQbej Del massless dirac fermions, baS chu' wanI' ghot'e'.





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